Plasma Plant, Merklux, and PEPoW

Commitground uses Plasma Plant, an implementation of a mineable plasma chain for dApps, guaranteeing its security with an accusatorial system using the Merklux, which can verify the state transitions by managing them through a merkleized unidirectional data flow. Furthermore, we introduce PEPoW, Priority Exponential Proof of Work, as a partial consensus mechanism for its plasma chain, which goes side by side with the Casper FFG, to implement the verifiable delaying using the PoW without unnecessary waste of hash power.

Plasma Plant

It is worth to make a plasma chain being mineable because it lets dApps not only implement their token economy, but also be more decentralized by implementing the economic incentives around persistent decentralized autonomous blockchains as mentioned in the plasma paper. Anyone can participate in the network as a miner node with the proof of stake, and we call them "plants." A plant proposes, validates, and finalizes the plasma blocks. Also, a plant monitors and submits the finalized plasma blocks onto the root chain. As a reward, new tokens are minted and rewarded to the plants.

Merklux

While we can reduce the transaction costs by submitting only the block headers of the plasma chain, we don't have a way to verify the plasma chain's state transition on the root chain. It is because the nodes on the root chain cannot access the state of the plasma chain. To resolve this problem, we use a smart contract called Merklux to manage the state with a merkleized unidirectional data flow. With Merklux, we can reenact the state transitions on the root chain.

Besides, we also use an accusatorial system to guarantee safe exits from the plasma chain. A submitted plasma block includes cross-links, and they become executable when there is no accusation for the submission in a given time. Otherwise, the submitter should defend the case by verifying the state transition using Merklux. In case of failure, related plants are slashed, and the plasma contract forfeits all of their deposits. Moreover, because of this accusatorial system, we don't need to destroy the plasma chain when a malicious submission occurs.

Priority Exponential Proof of Work

Basically, Plasma Plant works similarly to the beacon chain, but it uses Priority Exponential Proof of Work (PEPoW) as its block proposal algorithm, and finalizes the blocks with a modified Casper FFG. In Plasma Plant, for a specific epoch, every pseudo-randomly selected block proposer has its own block proposing priority for each block, and the difficulty of the proof of work to produce a new block is exponential to that priority. Also, because the modified Casper FFG provides maximum rewards to the validators when they pick the highest priority blocks, the lower priority blocks may not be selected, even if someone produces them faster than any other blocks with an overwhelming hash power. As excessive hash power cannot create any value, PEPoW can be used as a verifiable delayed function without unnecessary energy consumption.

Join the journey towards the open sourced world

Commtiground project has several projects. Some of them are application level and some of them are blockchain projects. And most of the projects are still in progress. Thereby, to achieve the goal, Commitground project needs your contributions. Please join the journey.

Github

commitground

Address

Nonce Genesis, 45-9, Bongeunsa-ro 22-gil
Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06127
Republic of Korea